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Curriculum Level: 9-12

By Angela Love Moser from Innovation Early College High School

OVERVIEW OF LESSON: Students will conduct research on a problem in the world today and connect this problem to at least three of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Then, students will identify six to eight sources and use the CRAAP method to determine if the sources are credible and reliable. Finally, they will create a visual annotated bibliography using the Précis model, featuring their sources. Students will use APA formatting for their annotated bibliographies.

SUGGESTED GRADE LEVEL: High school (but can be modified for lower grade levels)



English IV:

RI.11-12.1: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

RI.11-12.5: Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.

RI.11-12.7: Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.

RI.11-12.10: By the end of grade 12, read and understand informational texts at the high end of the 11-12 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.

W.11-12.2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. a. Organize information and ideas around a topic to plan and prepare to write. b. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting, graphics, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. c. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.

W.11-12.4: Use digital tools and resources to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

W.11-12.5: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

W.11-12.6: Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.

SL.11-12.2: Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.

SL.11-12.5: Make strategic use of digital media in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.


Student Empowerment 

    • 1: Act as a globally and digitally aware, responsible, and contributing citizen


    • 1. Compose a variety of text types 
    • 2. Analyze a writing task 
    • 3. Revise writing to improve clarity and accomplish the writing purpose 
    • 4. Polish writing through editing and proofreading 
    • 5. Publish writing by distributing it to varied audiences 
    • 7. Summarize and reflect to synthesize learning and identify next steps


    • 4. Make connections between new learning and previous learning, experiences, self, and/or the world
    • 8. Evaluate the validity and reliability of both digital and print sources
    • 9. Synthesize and organize information effectively, including usage of digital tools 
    • 10. Cite evidence and support claims 
    • 11.Present research findings, customizing the presentation for the intended audience


    • 1. Select a text according to the reading purpose 
    • 2. Preview text to connect with or build background knowledge


  • How can I utilize research skills to evaluate sources for credibility and reliability?
  • How can I determine a solution to a real-world problem?
  • How can I properly utilize APA Formatting guidelines?
  • How can I write/create a visual Annotated Bibliography using the Précis model?


  1. Students will be able to utilize library and Internet resources in order to find sources based on the problem they have identified.
  2. Students will be able to use the CRAAP method to evaluate their resources for credibility and reliability.
  3. Students will be able to determine a viable solution to a real-world problem.
  4. Students will be able to write/create a visual Annotated Bibliography using the Précis model and APA formatting.



  • Step 1: Choose a Focus
    • Have the students brainstorm ideas.
    • Then, they need to answer the following questions:
      • What UNSDG is going to be your main area of focus?
      • Why did you choose this UNSDG as your main area of focus?
      • List three problems that you are considering as your focus for this project (you will ultimately choose ONE problem on which to focus).
      • What two other UNSDGs play important roles in the problems you have chosen *you can list these next to each problem you are considering.*
  • Step 2: Proposal
    • Students will fill out this proposal (UNSDG Problem-Solution Project Proposal handout created by Angela Love Moser using Canva)
  • Step 3: CRAAP Evaluations
    • Students will find sources – up to the teacher how many to assign – for their annotated bibliography and evaluate them for credibility and reliability use the CRAAP method.
    • CRAAP Evaluations should include the complete APA citation as well as the CRAAP evaluation.
      • Example:
        Pilford, N. W. (2020). Long-term increases in pathogen seroprevalence in polar bears. 
             Global Change Biology, 27(19), 4481-4497.
    • This IMAGE/WEBPAGE is a great resource to provide the students as they work on this step. There are additional images available online.
  • Step 4: Annotated Bibliography
    • Assignment Sheet (created by Angela Love Moser using Canva)
    • Optional: Students can use the Precis model to complete their annotations; however, any Annotated Bibliography format/model will work for this assignment.
      • Precis Model PDF: LINK
      • Precise Model Video: LINK

ASSESSMENT: Rubric on assignment sheet (created by Angela Love Moser using Canva)


  • Students can create a visual annotated bibliography: EXAMPLE (created by Angela Love Moser using Canva)
    • Directions for the students: The only difference between the assigned annotated bibliography and the visual annotated bibliography is how you present the information. You still include a proper References citation, it will still be in alphabetical order, you will still include complete annotations based on the Précis model, and you still need all the APA formatting requirements, such as a cover page and page numbers. However, for the visual annotated bibliography, you have the freedom to play with colors and fonts and you will add images to your annotations. Each source will be on a separate slide – use Google Slides, PowerPoint, or Canva to create your presentation.
  • A student showcase website can be created so that students can display their work. Each student could have his or her own page to design.


  • Technology: Computer/tablet with Internet access


ALSC blog. (2020, April 25). Association for Library Service to Children. Retrieved 9 January 2023 from

John John. (2021, July 23). Rhetorical precis model [Video]. YouTube.

Rhetorical precis – description and examples. (n.d.) Retrieved 9 January 2023 from